六个月掌握一门外语,也不是不可能
发布时间: 2017-12-07   来源: 北外网院
关键词: 外语学习 学习方法 北外网院 北外网课 2018春学历招生

在网络遍布全球,信息传播变得全无界限的今天,越来越多人意识到,妨碍自己接收更多信息的唯一局限便是语言能力。因为英语作为世界通用语可以在政治、经济上把不同民众连接在一起。

 

但是必须承认,成年人学习语言的能力远不如十几二十岁的年轻人,如何快速有效地学习新语言呢?

以下的总结来自一位名为Chris Lonsdale的新西兰心理学家,他通过对语言学习方面的研究成果的评估,总结出可以让普通成年人在6个月内学会新语言并流利会话的5个原则和7大步骤。各位看官可以先记下来,再结合自己的学习情况因材施教,语言学习贵在坚持。

五大原则

Focus on language content that is relevant to you.

专注于与你相关的语言内容。

Do you want to learn Italian so that you can understand opera? If so, then concentrate on words and phrases that you would hear in Puccini’s operas.Do you want to learn to speak Mandarin so that you can communicate with your business partners in China? Then focus on learning words and phrases in Mandarin that are related to business.

为什么你要学说第二语言?考虑下面的问题:你想学意大利语是因为这样你就可以听懂歌剧?如果回答是,那就专注于你在普契尼的歌剧中会听到的那些单词和短语。你想学汉语普通话是因为这样你就可以和你在中国的商务合作伙伴交流?那就专注于学习普通话中与商务相关的单词和短语。

Use the new language as a tool to communicate.

将新语言作为交流工具使用。

learning the language in an academic setting, put yourself in situations which force you to use the language in order to be able to communicate with others.

将你自己置身于一种必需使用这种新语言才能与他人交流的环境中,而不是简单地学习书本里的语言知识。

When you first understand the message, you will unconsciously acquire the language.

如果你听懂了别人的话,你就会无意识地掌握这种语言。在你第一次努力学习新语言时,不要尝试去听懂别人用来与你交流的那些单词,要去尝试理解他们通过动作、身体语言和表情来传达的内容。

When you’re first trying to learn a new language, instead of trying to understand the words that someone is using to talk to you, try to understand what they’re trying to say through their gestures, body language, and facial expressions.That is, at first you don’t derive meaning from the language, but from the interaction. This is something called comprehensional input, and it’s been well documented.

在你第一次努力学习新语言时,不要尝试去听懂别人用来与你交流的那些单词,要去尝试理解他们通过动作、身体语言和表情来传达的内容。这就是说,开始的时候,不要从语言中得出意思,而要从交流中得出意思。这也称为理解性输入,很多文章都有相关论述。

Learning a language is about physiological training.

学习语言不是掌握知识。就很多方面而言,学习语言是一种心理训练。

First of all, we have filters in our brains that filter in sounds that we’re familiar with, and that filter out sounds that we’re not familiar with. And if you can’t hear it, you can’t learn it. Therefore, you have to continually listen to the sounds of the language that you’re trying to learn in order to train your brain to let in the new sounds.In addition, talking requires using your facial muscles. You have 43 muscles in your face. You have to coordinate those muscles in a way that makes sounds that others can understand.

首先,我们的大脑有许多过滤器,可以过滤出我们熟悉的声音,过滤掉不熟悉的声音。这样,如果你听不到那就学不到。所以,你必须不断地听你要学习的新语言,训练你的大脑,让它接受新声音。

此外,说话会用到面部肌肉。面部一共有 43 块肌肉。你必须协调运动这些肌肉,使别人可以理解你说的内容。

Your psychological state matters.

你的心理状态很重要。

If you’re sad, angry, worried, or upset, you’re not going to learn the new language. If you’re happy, relaxed, and curious, you’re going to learn the new language quickly. In addition, you need to be tolerant of ambiguity. At first when people speak to you in the language that you’re trying to learn, you’ll understand very little. But that’s OK.

如果你伤心、生气、担忧或者心烦意乱,你不会学好新语言的。如果你高兴、放松、好奇,您会很快学好新语言。此外,你要忍受那些意思不清楚的地方。人们一开始用你要学的新语言和你说话时,你能理解的部分很少。但这没关系。

七个步骤

Listen a lot.

听——大量地听。

Lonsdale calls this brain soaking. It doesn’t matter if at first you don’t understand what you’re listening to. You’re listening to recognize patterns, words that repeat, and things that stand out. In addition, you’re listening to the rhythm of the language.

Lonsdale 将这称作浸泡大脑。如果一开始你听不懂,没有关系。你要听那些反复的节奏、重复的单词和突出的内容。此外,你还要听语言的韵律。

Focus on getting the meaning first.

专注于先理解意思。

Focus on getting the meaning first even before you get the words. From body language you can understand a lot of communication. You’ll be acquiring the language through comprehensional input.

这甚至要先于理解单词。从身体语言中你可以理解很多交流的内容。你可以通过理解性输入学会新语言。

Start mixing.

开始混合

If you know ten verbs, ten nouns, and ten adjectives in the new language, you can say 1000 different things. Language is a creative process. Look for ways to get your meaning across by using the words that you know.

如果知道新语言中的十个动词、十个名词和十个形容词,你就可以说1000种事物。语言是一种创造性的过程。找到一些方法,让你可以用你知道的词就能表达并让别人听懂你的意思。

Focus on the core.

专注于核心内容。

With every language there’s high frequency content. As an illustration, in English, one thousand words cover 85% of anything you’re going to say in daily life. Three-thousand words give you 98% coverage. All the other words in the English language are the icing on the cake.

每种语言都有高频内容。例如,英语中的一千个单词就覆盖了日常生活中 85% 的内容。三千个单词可以覆盖98%的内容。英语中除此之外的所有单词就是蛋糕上的那层奶油。

Get a language parent.

找到一名语言长辈。

开始学习一门语言时,你的过程可能是这样的:

Week 1

Continually ask “What is this?”, “How do you say . . .”, “Can you say that again?”, “Can you repeat that?” Always ask these questions in the language that you’re trying to learn.

第一周:不断地问“这是什么”、“……怎么说”、. “你能不能再说一遍?”、“你能不能再重复一遍?”。不断用你学习的语言问这些问题。

Week 2 and 3

You should be using very simple nouns, verbs, and pronouns (“you”, “me”, “that”, “hot”, “give”, and so on).

第二第三周:你已经开始使用一些非常简单的名词、动词和代词(“你”、“我”、“那个”、“热”、“给”,等等)。

Week 4

You’re using glue words, such as “and”, “but”, “even though”, “therefore”, and so on. These words tie bits of language together so that you can make more complex meaning. At this point you’re talking in the new language.

第四周:你已经开始使用一些连词,比如“以及”、“但是”、“即使”、“因此”,等等。这些词将语言的一些要素连接到了一起,这样你就可以表达更为复杂的意思。这个时候你已经在用新语言说话了。

This is where you want to get a language parent. That is, someone who will treat you like a parent treats their child when the child is learning to speak. This language parent can recognize what you’re saying, even when others don’t understand. They create a safe environment for you, which makes you more confident in your ability to learn the new language.

这就是为什么你需要找一名语言长辈。语言长辈会像父母对待牙牙学语的婴儿一样对你。即使他人不能听懂,这名语言长辈也可以知道你说的是什么意思。语言长辈为你创造了安全的环境,让你可以根据自己的能力更加自信地学习新语言。

语言长辈需要满足的四个要求是:

1.他们会努力理解你说的话。

2.他们不会改正你的错误。

3.他们会用正确的表达确认他们已经理解。

4.他们用的都是你知道的单词,同时也会使用手势和身体语言。

Copy the face.

模仿面部表情。

In order to learn to make the sounds that will allow you to speak the new language, you have to watch the face of people who speak that language. How does their face move when they’re speaking? Mimic their facial movements.

要模仿新语言的发音,你必须看这个语言的使用者有什么样的表情。他们说话时表情是怎么变化的?要模仿他们的面部运动。

“Direct Connect” to mental images.

与大脑图像无缝对接

Most people learning to speak another language will make a list of words that they want to learn in their mother tongue, and next to each word they’ll place the equivalent in the language that they’re trying to learn. Then they just go over the list repeatedly in the hopes of memorizing the words in the new language. This is very inefficient.

与大脑图像“直接连接”大多数学习新语言的人会用母语列一个想要学习的单词表,然后在每个单词旁边写上新语言中想要学习的对应单词。然后他们不断复习这个表,希望能记住新语言里的这些单词。这种方法非常低效。

Everything that you know is an image inside your mind. For example, if you talk about fire you can smell the smoke, feel the heat, hear the crackling, and see the flames. What you want to do is to focus on the image that’s currently in your head for “fire” and create a new pathway that leads from this image to the word “fire” in the language that you’re trying to learn.

所有你知道的事物都是大脑中的一个图像。例如,你谈论火时,你会闻到烟味、感受到热量、听到噼啪声、看到火焰。你要做的就是专注于现在你脑中关于“火”的这个图像,然后创建一个新通路将这个图像和新语言中“火”这个单词联系起来。

 

                   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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