地道的口语发音,是技术也是艺术
发布时间: 2017-06-26   来源: 北外网院
关键词: 地道口语 英语学习 北外网课 北外网院 2017秋学历招生

周一送干货。之前做口语方面的文章不少,多是偏表达方式的,如何表达更地道,同样的意思怎么说更委婉。今天这篇锻炼口语的小技巧是从发音角度讲,很基础,明白易懂好上手。

 

Hacking Your Language Study

巧学英语

My favourite tricks focus on the aspects of English that are very easy to master, and I develop ways around the parts of English that are “hard” to understand. Usually, it's not the language itself that's “hard”, but your method for studying might be causing the language to seem more challenging. If you look at those challenges in a new light then they can become much easier!

英语学习的诀窍中,我最喜欢的最容易掌握,最“难”理解的部分我会重点击破。一般来说,语言本身并不“难”,“难”的是学习的方法不对,会让一切努力事倍功半。如果你换一个角度看这些难点,它们就会变得简单多了。

Simple Rules for Pronouncing ~ed

~ed的发音规则

One of my favourite pronunciation hacks for English learners is how to properly pronounce ~ed.

这是我最爱的英语发音绝招之一,即正确发出~ed这个音。

In my experience this is one of the most obvious parts of a foreign accent. Luckily, it's also one of the easiest to fix. Learning the right way to say ~ed can have a huge impact on your accent. But best of all it is very easy to learn.

以我的经验来看,这个部分的发音错误最明显,不过这个部分也是最容易纠正的。如何正确发出~ed对你的英语口语有重大影响。最最重要的还是它纠正起来最最简单。

There are only three possible ways to pronounce this, and (unlike much of the English language) the rules are consistent:

~ed只有三种发音,它可不像其他英语发音千变万化,它的发音规则是有迹可循的:

Rule1: After a d or t, pronounce it as [ɪd].

规则1:跟在d或者t后面,请发[ɪd].

In English, it's not possible to say a t and d sound immediately after each other, so we add in the vowel sound. Do this in words like wanted, painted, ended, admitted, suggested, started, etc.

英语中 t 和 d 连在一起不可能直接发这两个音,所以两者之间需要加一个元音。将这个规则用在如下单词:wanted, painted, ended, admitted, suggested, started等。

Rule2: After the sounds p, f, s, ch, sh and k, pronounce it as [t].

规则2:如果~ed跟在p,f,s,ch,sh和k之后,请将其发成[t]。

These sounds cannot be followed by a d in English, so the sound changes to a [t]. Do this in words like stopped, laughed (f sound), finished, and walked.

以上一连串的字母不可以直接接d,所以需要变音为[t]。请发音如下单词: stopped, laughed (尾部是f的发音 ), finished, 以及 walked。

Rule3: In all other cases, pronounce it as [d].

规则3:其他的情况下,ed发音为[d]

Take care not to pronounce the e sound in ~ed here: just pronounce the [d]. Try it in the words imagined, cleaned, enjoyed, cried, and allowed.

请注意,不要将~ed中的e真正发出来,发[d]就好。请尝试朗读如下单词:imagined, cleaned, enjoyed, cried, and allowed

The Position of Your Mouth

注意口型

Another way to remember this is to think of the position of your mouth in the part of the word before the ~ed.

还有一种方法,记住发~ed音的时候你的口型是怎样的。

For the first rule, notice that d and t are both sounds created by putting your tongue on the roof of your mouth. Because they're in nearly the same spot, it's hard to move between them without adding in a vowel! Try it out.

对规则1来说,要发出d和t两个音,都需要将舌头顶住上腭,发音位置近乎一致。所以要连续发这两个音是很困难的,必须要在中间加一个元音!现在再发音试试看吧。

For the second rule, all but one of the sounds (k) is made by putting your lips or teeth together.

对于规则2,所有的音(除了k)都需要嘴唇或者牙齿闭合。

For the third rule, most of the sounds have either a hummed sound (like n or m) or an open, vowel position (like a or o) prior to the ~ed.

规则3,跟在~ed之前,大部分的音都跟“哼”的声音很像(像n或者m的发音),或者是一个开元音的发音位置(如a或者o的发音)。

Just remember that certain mouth positions lend themselves to being compensated for with different ways of saying ~ed, and you're good to go!

只要记住一些口型是为了迎合~ed发音而变化的,发准音绝没问题!

And if that is still too confusing?

如果你还是觉得没弄明白的话怎么办?

Then just remember this one rule: for the majority of cases, when you see ~ed, you should pronounce it like [d] (rather than [ɪd], which is only relevant after d or t). If you use this pronunciation by default when you're not sure, you're most likely to get it right.

只要记住这一条法则就行:大部分情况下,你看到~ed就发音为[d](而不是[ɪd],因为只有d和t同时出现的时候才需要)。如果在你不确定的时候那就这么发音吧,发音正确的概率还是很高的。

Making English Easy

让英语变得小菜一碟

Even if you only follow this one, easy rule, it will help you with your English pronunciation, and soon enough the looks of confusion on the faces of your English-speaking friends will turn to smiles and nods of understanding.

单单这一个绝招,就能帮你提升英语发音。很快你的外国朋友会舒展脸上疑惑的眉头,一展理解的笑容,频频点头。

This applies to all languages you may be learning, not just English. If you're also learning Spanish, French, German, Italian, or Chinese along with English, you'll find more hacks you can use right away in the FI3M language guides.

不仅是英语,对于学习所有的外语这都适用。一旦你学了这几招,语言学习就会飞速进步,你就会明白为什么英语学习so easy啦!

下面,奉上20个老外表达时的高频句子,熟练运用会让你的口语更地道哈!

◥ After you.

你先请。

◢ Don’t take it to heart.

别往心里去,别因此而费神。

◥ We’d better be off.

我们该走了。

◤ Let’s face it.

面对现实吧。(当你不愿意躲避困难时,就用它吧)

◢ Let’s get started.

咱们开始干吧。

◥ I’m really dead.

我真的要累死了。(有的时候当你的课业负担太重的时候,不妨对你的英语老师说吧)

◣ I’ve done my best.

我已经尽力了。

◥ Is that so?

真是那样的吗?

◤ Don’t play games with me.

别跟我耍花招。(某人说,这句话的意思难道不是“不要跟我一起玩游戏”吗?汗死!)

◢ I don’t know for sure.

我不确切知道。(这比说“I don’t know的效果好很多呢)

◥ I’m not going to kid you。

我不是跟你开玩笑的。

◣ That’s something.

太好了,太棒了。(有没有觉得That’s good很土呢?)

◥ Do you really mean it?

此话当真?

◤ You are a great help.

你帮了大忙了。

◢ I couldn’t be more sure.

我再肯定不过了。(如果你很强烈的想要人家相信你,就用这个句子吧)

◣ I am behind you。

我支持你。

◥ I’m broke.

我身无分文。(难道是因为口袋破了,就一毛钱都没有了吗?)

◤ Mind you.

请注意!听着!

◢ That depends.

看情况再说。

◤ It’s a deal.

一言为定。

 

以下是一些让你的句子有礼貌的方法

———★———

1,西方人(主要指有一定修养的欧美人)在与他人交流时,比较多地使用情态动词:can、could、may、might、would等等;情态动词(Model Verbs)又称为情态助动词(Model Auxil-iaries),表示说话人的语气,可表达建议、要求、可能和意愿等,使得说话的语气比较有礼貌。

2,比较多地使用虚拟语气,比如would (had) rather、would (had) sooner、would (just) as soon等等,或者在陈述句中使用过去式表示虚拟语气,或者使用if等引导的从句表示“可能性”。这样说话可以使人感觉表达者是在考虑达到最佳的结果或方式,尽量避免不好的结果或方式,或者推测可能出现的问题,并找出可能解决的办法。

3,往往在句尾加please,而不是在句首加please。当please用在句首的时候,语气听起来就比较强,听起来像命令。比如请求别人做某事的时候,我们中国人会说“请在周一前给我回复。谢谢。”但是如果你直接用英语说“Please reply to me by Monday. Thank you.”听者会觉得你是在命令他,一点礼貌也没有。而如果这样说:“Could you please reply to me by Monday? Thank you.”就显得有礼貌了。

4,在陈述句的表达可能显得生硬、没礼貌时,尽量使用疑问句、否定句或从句,尽量避免自己的主观判断或武断,以积极的、建议的、比较的、人性的语气,代替消极的、命令的、直接的、武断的语气。

5,说话要以他人为中心,以肯定他人、赞同他人为前提,让自己显得谦卑、渺小。说完之后,还要附带一句“Thank you”或“Thanks”。其实,这种礼貌的表达方式是来自古老的中国。这是东西方文化的共同点,也是为人处世的基本原则。了解英语中礼貌的表达方式,尽量让自己的英语表达更有礼貌,融入社会。

西方人那些弱爆了的语言逻辑

———★———

When the British say "With the greatest respect... " They mean "I think you are an idiot." But what others understand is "He is listening to me."

当西方人说“出于最大的尊重…”时,他们的意思是“我觉得你太二了”,而其他人却理解成了“他正听我说话呢”。

When the British say "That's not bad. " They mean "That's good." But what othersunderstand is "That's poor."

当西方人说“不算太糟”时,他们的意思是“太好了”,而其他人却理解成了“太差了”。

When the British say "That is a very brave proposal. " They mean "You are insane." But what others understand is "He thinks I have courage."

当西方人说“那真是一个非常有勇气的提议”时,他们的意思是“你真是疯了”,而其他人却理解成了“他觉得我很有胆识”。

When the British say "Quite good. " They mean "A bit disappointing." But what othersunderstand is "Quite good."

当西方人说“很不错哦”时,他们的意思是“有点小失望”,而其他人却理解成了“真心不错”。

When the British say "I would suggest... " They mean "Do it or be prepared to justify yourself." But what others understand is "Think about the idea, but do what you like."

当西方人说“我想建议的是……”时,他们的意思是“去实践或者做好准备证明你自己”,而其他人却理解成了“考虑一下他的点子,但还是做我想做的”。

When the British say "Oh, incidentally / by the way... " They mean "The primary purpose of our discussion is..." But what others understand is "That is not very important."

当西方人说“顺便说一句……”时,他们的意思是“我们讨论的最根本目的是……”,而其他人却理解成了“接下来的话不是非常重要”。

When the British say "I was a bit disappointed that... " They mean "I am annoyed that..." But what others understand is "It doesn't really matter."

当西方人说“我对……有点小失望”时,他们的意思是“我对……很恼火”,而其他人却理解成了“无伤大雅”。

When the British say "Very interesting. " They mean "That is clearly nonsense." But what others understand is "They are impressed."

当西方人说“非常有意思啊”时,他们的意思是“那明显是瞎扯淡”,而其他人却理解成了“那真是让人印象深刻”。

When the British say "I'll bear it in mind. " They mean "I've forgotten it already." But what others understand is "They will probably do it."

当西方人说“我刻在脑子里了”时,他们的意思是“我已经不记得了”,而其他人却理解成了“他们大概会去做的吧”。

When the British say "I'm sure it's my fault. " They mean "It's your fault." But what others understand is "Why do they think it was their fault?"

当西方人说“我确定是我错了”时,他们的意思是“那其实是你的错”,而其他人却理解成了“为什么他们会觉得是他们的错呢?”

When the British say "You must come for dinner. " They mean "It's not an invitation, I'm just being polite." But what others understand is "I will get an invitation soon."

当西方人说“你一定要来赴宴”时,他们的意思是“那绝不是什么邀请,我只不过想礼貌一些”,而其他人却理解成了“马上我就会收到一个邀请了”。

When the British say "I almost agree. " They mean "I don't agree at all." But what othersunderstand is "He's not far from agreement."

当西方人说“我基本同意”时,他们的意思是“我一点儿都不同意”,而其他人却理解成了“他真的是非常非常同意啊”。

When the British say "I only have a few minor comments. " They mean "Please re-write completely." But what others understand is "He has found a few typos."

当西方人说“我只是有一点儿建议”时,他们的意思是“请从头到尾地重写一份吧”,而其他人却理解成了“他只不过发现了一些言语错误”。

When the British say "Could we consider some other options?" They mean "I don't like your idea." But what others understand is "They have not yet decided."

当西方人说“我们可以再考虑一些其他的选择吗?”时,他们的意思是“我着实不喜欢你的点子”,而其他人却理解成了“他们还没有决定下来吧”。

 

                   

 

 

              

  

 

 

 

 

        

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